Mukerji published his first children's book, 'Kari, the Elephant', in 1922. The American Library Association presented him with the Newbery Medal in 1928 for 'Gay-Neck: The Story of a Pigeon '(1927), a book about a carrier pigeon for the Indian army in France during World War I that goes to a lama's monastery for help in regaining his courage. Mukerji's other children's books include 'Ghond, the Hunter' (1928), 'The Chief of the Herd'(1929), 'Hindu Fables for Little Children' (1929), 'Rama, the Hero of India' (1930), and 'The Master Monkey' (1932). Many of his works were retellings of stories he heard as a child. Others were inspired by his own experiences in India.
Among Mukerji's writings for adults are 'A Son of Mother India Answers '(1928) (partly in response to Katherine Mayo's Mother India) , 'Devotional Passages from the Hindu Bible '(1929), 'Disillusioned India '(1930) and 'My Brother's Face'(1932). Although he wrote some plays, poetry, and novels for older audiences, he primarily focused on nonfiction. He also conducted several lecture tours. Mukerji's autobiography, 'Caste and Outcast', was published in 1923. He committed suicide by hanging on July 14, 1936, in New York City.