Sunday, 22 October 2017



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Important Determinants for Good Health
  • Adequate food (nutrition)
  • Safe drinking water, sanitation, and housing
  • Clean environment, healthy living conditions and health lifestyle
  • Access to better health services
  • Education
  • Social security measures and proper and equal wages
  • Freedom from exploitation and discrimination
  • Women’s rights
  • Protected work environment
  • Relaxation, recreation and healthy relationships
ILL Health is related to
  1. Malnutrition
  2. Unsafe water and lack of sanitation
  3. Unhealthy living conditions
  4. Unhealthy habits-alcohol/drug abuse
  5. Hard labor and difficult work conditions
  6. Mental tension
  7. Patriarchy
  8. Lack of access to health services
  9. Lack of health education

2. Unsafe water and lack of sanitation
  • Unsafe water is cause of many diseases.
  • The lack of sanitation leads to contaminated and unsafe drinking water
  • Diarrhea, cholera, jaundice, typhoid spread due to unsafe drinking water
  • Malaria, dengue Filarial, encephalitis spread due to mosquitoes breeding in stagnant water

  1. Unhealthy living condition

  • Crowded living spaces, damp rooms, smoke and dust filled environment, all these give rise to respiratory problems and lead to diseases like Tuberculosis.

  1. Unhealthy habits and Unhealthy life style

  • Unhealthy habits related to life style like alcoholism and use of other intoxicants, drugs and narcotic substances are also a major cause of bad health in many families. They also lead to social problems at the family and community level and health problems
  • A lifestyle where a person engages in activities that are known to be detrimental to one's health, such as smoking, not exercising regularly or enough, eating unhealthy foods on a regular basis, and not maintaining a healthy weight. An unhealthy lifestyle can vary by degrees, and some may determine that being slightly unhealthy is acceptable for the sake of quality of life
  • Alzheimer's disease, Arthritis, atherosclerosis, asthma, cancer, chronic liver disease or cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, metabolic syndrome, chronic renal failure, osteoporosis, stroke, depression and obesity are the diseases caused out of un healthy life style

  1. Hard labor and difficult work condition
  • Hard labor - pulling cycle-rickshaws; Working for long hours
  • Conditions of work; increase the possibilities for disease and illness. For example: working unprotected in stone quarries leads to severe respiratory problems, spraying pesticides without protection
  • Unsafe equipment and work tools
  1. Patriarchy
  • When we compare men and women, we find that more women fall ill than men.
  • The core reason for this is patriarchy. It means that our society is dominated by men and accords a lower status to women. This causes ill-health for women in the following ways:
  • In the family, women eat last and also get lesser quantities of food to eat
  • Women have to bear the burden of work both in the home and outside
  • Women have lesser access to health services
  • Women are giving lesser opportunities for education
  • Women are taught to feel ashamed about their bodies
  • Women are taught to tolerate everything in silence
  • Women are made to give the least importance to their health
  • They are subjected to violence, abuse and harassment
  • They also face the constant fear that men can leave them or kick them out of the house
  • Females are subjected to female feticide, girl infanticide, and dowry death

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8.  Lack of access to health services  
  • The government is responsible for providing healthcare services to all people. However, many a time people are not able to access these services. This may be due to many reasons, for example:
  • Health facilities like PHC are non- functional due to lack of availability/vacant positions of ANMs, doctors, nurses and other staff.
  • Overburdening of health facility staff may also limit their effectiveness in providing care to the patients.
  • Provision of care is also adversely affected in cases where the staff of health facility lacks initiative or is negligent.
  • People are unable to avail adequate health services due to limited availability of diagnostics and medicines in health centers in some places.
  • Block and district hospitals sometimes also lack adequate services
  • Lack of connectivity, unavailability of transport, geographic barriers limits the reach of the people to avail health services.
  • In many places, people have to spend some money from their own pockets even if they go to Government hospitals
  • The cost of going to private hospitals is even higher. Therefore many poor people are not able to take treatment from proper hospitals

  1. Lack of health education
  • Lack of health awareness due to ignorance
  • In order to increase the utilization of health services, people need to be given full information about this, like, what are the services available, what their importance is and how to utilize them? Many a times people are not given this information and this prevents them from utilizing the services.
  • The lack of participation by the community in health and the lack of relationship between the community and health staff result in such problems.
              Preventive measures
Health awareness at Anganwadi level
  • Health Check-ups for antenatal mothers and under five children
  • Immunization for antenatal mothers and under five children
  • Growth Promotion, Breast feeding & Supplementary Feeding.
  • Referral Services for antenatal mothers, communicable and non communicable diseases
  • Early Childhood Care and Pre-school Education.
  • Nutrition and Health
  • Supportive Services, such as Safe Drinking Water, Environmental Sanitation, Women empowerment and Adult Literacy
  • Family planning services
  • Mental hygiene for adolescent girls and antenatal and lactating mothers
  • Menstrual hygiene, sex education to adolescent girl
Health awareness at School level
  • Healthy life style and healthy habits
  • Personal and Environmental Hygiene
  • Mental Hygiene
  • Sex education , HIV/AIDS
  • Education on cessation of smoking and drug abuse
  • Prevent of most common diseases
  • Selection  of profession among adolescents
  • Being Responsible and Safe
  • Behavior and Life skills section
  • Nutrition and health

Health awareness at Community level
  • Healthy lifestyle
  • Impact of working and living environment on health
  • Mental Hygiene
  • Stress& management
  • Orientation to health care system
  • Prevention of most common diseases
  • Family planning services
  • C:\Users\ARSHAD SHAIK\Downloads\Jessi copy.jpgPersonal and environmental hygiene and sanitation
  • Occupational health
  • Communicable and non communicable diseases
  • Sex education
  • Nutrition and health to all vulnerable groups
    S. Jasmin Debora,
                                    NRI College professor, Guntur  


1 comment:

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