Thursday, 31 January 2019

Soil Erosion

Its a process in which the top fertile layer of soil is lost. Due to soil erosion the soil becomes less fertile . The top layer of soil is very light which is easily carried away by wind and water . The removal of topsoil by the natural forces is known as soil erosion. 

Causes of soil erosion 

1 Wind when strong winds blow the topsoil along with organic matter is carried by wind. This happens when the land is not covered with grass or plants. Such conditions are there in desert and semi-desert regions. 
2 Water when it rains in the hilly areas the soil gets washed away towards the plains. The running water deposits the mineral rich soil in the riverbed and over the years this deposition of soil can change the course of river . This can lead to floods which cause the havoc of life and property. Water erosion leads to loss of agriculture potential. 
3 Deforestation humans have taken land from the forest to cultivate and to build houses ,industry etc . Cutting of trees on large scale leads to deforestation. When large areas of the forest are cleared the topsoil gets eroded by wind and flowing water. 

Soil conservation 

1 Afforestation Planting new trees is called afforestation. We live because plants live ,if the plants
die all livings things will also die . Thus whenever trees are cut down new trees should be planted . 
2 Crop rotation Between harvesting one crop and planting the next crop the fields lie bare there is a time period when the farmland does not have any crops. During this time period the farmer either grows grass or grows other crops to prevent soil erosion. This helps the soil to regain the lost minerals . 
3 Terrace farming In hilly areas farming is done by cutting steps on the slopes of the hills. This slows down the flow of water and soil removed from one step is deposited on the next step . Thus the soil is never lost . This is terrace farming. 
4 Building dams are built to prevent floods which not only damage the crops but also wash away the topsoil . Also embankment along the banks of river can protect fields from floods. These embankment prevent the fast overflowing of rivers and rainwater from washing away a huge amount of rich fertile soil.

- By Poorvi Bellap

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