The Army has been assisting the State Governments of North Eastern States in Counter Insurgency Operations. The multi dimensional approach adopted to address the insurgency problems has brought about a perceptible change in the security environment in the region. As a result, the law and order situation in the North Eastern States is well under control.
Trouble surfaced in Assam with the student agitation in 1979 on the foreigner's issue. Violence continued intermittently till 1985 when the Assam Accord between the AASU (All Assam Students Union), Assam Gina Sang ram Paris had (AGSP) and the Central Government was signed. Inspire of the accord, United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) demanded secession from the Union and started resorting to insurgent activities. The State of Assam was declared disturbed on 27 Nov 1990 and Operation BAJRANG launched. Due to pressure of the Security Forces, ULFA agreed to a truce in Mar 1991. Renewed violence led to launching of Operation RHINO in Sep 1991. The Bodo agitation for a separate Bodoland comprising the Bodo dominated areas was contained to an extent with the signing of the Bodo Accord and formation of the Bodo Territorial Council (BTC) in 2005. However the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) continued with its movement.
Consequent to sustained operational pressure by Army, NDFB signed a 'Suspension of Operations Agreement' with the Government of India (GOI) on 01 Jun 2005. This event along with successful conduct of elections to the Bodoland Territorial Council has virtually ushered in an era of peace and development in the Bodo dominated areas.
Relentless Counter Insurgency Operations against ULFA forced the group to come to the negotiating table. The Peace Consultative Group (PCG) held three rounds of talks with Government of India (GOI) to facilitate direct talks with ULFA. The GOI responded favourably and suspended all offensive operations against ULFA wef 14 Aug 06. However, ULFA used the ceasefire period to consolidate military and financially. Since ULFA did not respond positively to the peace overtures, GOI issued directions for re-commencement of operations against ULFA wef 23 Sep 2006.
Naga Hills had remained isolated from the National mainstream till First World War. Educated Nagas formed Naga Clubs in 1940, which led to the formation of Nagaland National Council (NNC) in 1946. In 1947, Sir Akbar Hydari, the then Governor of Assam, signed a Nine Point Agreement with the Naga leaders, where certain amount of autonomy was given to them. The State of Nagaland was formed on 01 Dec 1963 and a semblance of peace prevailed for almost a decade before violence returned in 1972. A movement to bring the militants over ground was successful and the Shillong Accord was reached on 11 Nov 1975. However NSCN denounced the accord and decided to continue the struggle - later they split into two factions - NSCN (K) led by Khaplang and NSCN (IM) under the leadership of Muivah and Isaac Swu. After years of senseless brutality, peace returned to the State when the NSCN (IM) entered into a ceasefire with the Govt in 1997 and NSCN (K) did likewise in 2001.
Both NSCN (IM) and NSCN (K) have extended the Ceasefire Agreement with the Government till 31 July 07 and 28 April 07 respectively. Talks between the GOI and NSCN factions are going on. However, both the groups continue to carry out violations of the Ceasefire Ground Rules with inter factional clashes between them accounting for maximum violence in Nagaland. Army and Assam Rifles have managed the environment very well and conducted themselves in a very patient, firm and mature manner to ensure that the 'peace process' continues to move forward.
The revolt against the domination by Vaishnavism and Mayangs (outsiders) led the Meitei search for a separate identity. This, in turn, led to the emergence of underground organisations with the objective of 'Liberation' of Manipur from the Indian Union. Manipur continues to be afflicted by Meitei, Naga and Kuki insurgencies and armed militancy of smaller tribes. Meitei insurgents are active in the Valley Districts. The State is also affected by the Naga insurgency as the NSCN (IM) influence extends to the Hill Districts of Manipur. Army has been fighting insurgency in Manipur since the early eighties as part of Operation HIFAZAT.
Successful offensive operations have been conducted in the Southern Districts of Manipur, which has resulted in elimination of a large number of militants. The writ of civil administration has been restored in most parts of the State after a gap of 5-6 years.
The opening of National Highways NH 53 and NH 150 and resumption of civil traffic on them has been a particular noteworthy achievement of the Army. A concerted demining / IED neutralisation drive by the Army has resulted in a sharp decrease in casualties to innocent civilians and their livestock.
Unrest in the state was sparked off by the poverty of the tribals, their exploitation by non-tribal immigrants, and the lack of any democratic political processes through which their grievances could be addressed. The demographic inversion of Tripura compounded the problem further. A tripartite agreement to end the eight-year-old problem was signed on 12 Aug 88 by the Centre, the Government of Tripura and the Tripura National Volunteers (TNV). However, some disgruntled elements stayed under ground, the most powerful being the All Tripura Tiger Force (ATTF) and the National Liberation Front of Tripura (NLFT). Their main demand was the ouster of illegal migrants from Bangladesh. In 2004, NLFT also entered into a Ceasefire Agreement.
The situation in the State today is analogous to that of a high-grade law and order problem. Adequate operational pressure applied by the Security Forces combined with a lucrative Surrender cum Rehabilitation Policy has resulted in a spate of surrenders.
SURRENDER AND REHABILITATION PACKAGE
The Army, in its endeavour to bring the misguided youth into the national mainstream, has continuously focused towards the objective of inducing maximum misguided youth to give up arms and surrender. To this effect, the Army has successfully persuaded the Central Government to formulate and promulgate a lucrative ‘Surrender cum Rehabilitation Policy’ for the North Eastern States. As a result, more than one thousand three hundred militants have laid down their arms and surrendered to the Security Forces since 01 Jan 2006.